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Hadoop Architecture: An Overview of the Distributed Big Data Framework

Hadoop Architecture: An Overview of the Distributed Big Data Framework

Hadoop Architecture: An Overview of the Distributed Big Data Framework
Hadoop Architecture: An Overview of the Distributed Big Data Framework

Hadoop Architecture: An Overview of the Distributed Big Data Framework. Hadoop is a powerful, open-source software framework that allows for the distributed storage and processing of large data sets across clusters of computers. With its ability to handle massive amounts of data, Hadoop is becoming increasingly popular for big data applications in industries such as finance, healthcare, and e-commerce. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the Hadoop architecture and how it works to provide reliable, scalable data processing.

Hadoop is built on a distributed file system called Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and a data processing framework called MapReduce. HDFS is designed to store and manage large data sets by dividing them into smaller blocks and storing them on a cluster of servers. Each block is replicated on multiple servers to ensure reliability and availability. MapReduce is a programming model used for processing large data sets in a parallel and distributed manner. It works by dividing the data set into smaller sub-sets, processing each sub-set on different nodes of the cluster, and then aggregating the results.

The Hadoop architecture is based on a master-slave model, with the master node known as the NameNode and the slave nodes known as DataNodes. The NameNode manages the file system metadata, such as the location and replication factor of the data blocks. It keeps track of the blocks stored on the cluster and their locations. The DataNodes store the actual data blocks and report to the NameNode with periodic heartbeats.

In addition to HDFS and MapReduce, Hadoop also includes other important components that make up the Hadoop ecosystem. These include:

YARN (Yet Another Resource Negotiator):

YARN (Yet Another Resource Negotiator) is a core component of Hadoop, which is used to manage resources and schedule jobs in a Hadoop cluster. It was introduced in Hadoop 2.x and is responsible for managing the cluster resources, such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth, among others.

The primary goal of YARN is to improve the overall performance and scalability of Hadoop by providing a centralized platform for resource management and scheduling. YARN enables Hadoop to support a wide range of data processing applications, including batch processing, interactive processing, and real-time processing.

In the Hadoop architecture, YARN sits between the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and the MapReduce processing engine. It separates the resource management and scheduling functionality from the processing engine, which allows Hadoop to support different processing engines, including Apache Spark, Apache Storm, and Apache Flink, among others.

YARN is composed of two major components: the Resource Manager (RM) and the Node Manager (NM). The Resource Manager is responsible for managing the resources in the cluster, while the Node Manager runs on each node in the cluster and is responsible for managing the resources on that node. The Resource Manager and Node Manager communicate with each other to ensure that the cluster resources are utilized efficiently.

YARN uses a hierarchical architecture for resource allocation, where resources are allocated to different applications based on their requirements. The Resource Manager keeps track of the available resources in the cluster and allocates them to applications based on their resource requirements. Each application runs in a separate container, which is managed by the Node Manager.

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YARN also supports features such as security, fault tolerance, and scalability. It provides a pluggable architecture, which allows new resource schedulers and other components to be added easily. YARN also supports dynamic allocation of resources, which allows the resources to be allocated to applications on demand.

In summary, YARN is an important component of Hadoop, which provides a centralized platform for resource management and scheduling. It enables Hadoop to support a wide range of data processing applications and provides features such as security, fault tolerance, and scalability.


HBase is a column-oriented database management system that is designed to handle large amounts of structured data in a distributed environment. It is built on top of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and provides low latency random read/write access to large-scale datasets. HBase is a NoSQL database that provides features such as scalability, fault tolerance, and high availability. It is an open-source project that is maintained by the Apache Software Foundation.

HBase is used in applications where real-time read/write access to large datasets is required. It can handle petabytes of data and is used in large-scale applications such as social media platforms, e-commerce websites, and financial institutions. HBase is known for its fast read/write performance and can be used for storing large amounts of data in a way that can be easily accessed and processed.

HBase architecture consists of two major components: the HBase Master and RegionServers. The HBase Master is responsible for managing the cluster and the metadata of the tables. It also manages the assignment of regions to RegionServers. RegionServers are responsible for serving the read and write requests to the data. They store data in HDFS and keep it in memory for fast access.

HBase provides several features that make it suitable for handling large-scale datasets. One of the key features is the ability to perform real-time queries on the data. It supports fast scans and filters to retrieve only the required data from the large datasets. HBase also provides support for automatic sharding and load balancing. This means that the data is automatically distributed across the cluster, and the workload is balanced among the nodes.

In addition to this, HBase provides support for data compression and caching. The data can be compressed to reduce the storage requirements, and the frequently accessed data can be cached in memory for fast access. HBase also supports atomic row-level operations, which means that a single row can be updated or deleted without affecting the other rows.

In conclusion, HBase is a powerful NoSQL database that is designed to handle large-scale datasets in a distributed environment. Its architecture is based on HDFS, which provides scalability and fault tolerance. HBase provides fast read/write access to large datasets and supports several features such as real-time queries, automatic sharding, data compression, and caching. It is widely used in large-scale applications where real-time read/write access to large datasets is required.

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Hive is a data warehousing and SQL-like query system that facilitates the analysis of large datasets stored in Hadoop’s distributed file system (HDFS) or other compatible file systems. Hive allows users to query data using a SQL-like language, known as HiveQL or HQL.

Hive’s architecture consists of three main components:

  • Metastore: Stores metadata for Hive’s tables, such as schema definitions, partition keys, column names, and data storage locations. The metadata is stored in a database, such as MySQL or PostgreSQL, and can be accessed by multiple Hive instances.
  • Hive Server: Accepts client requests to execute queries and returns results. The Hive server can be run in two modes: Thrift server mode, which allows remote clients to connect to Hive using JDBC or ODBC, and embedded mode, which allows direct HiveQL queries via a command-line interface.
  • Execution Engine: Translates HiveQL queries into a series of MapReduce jobs that are executed on the Hadoop cluster. Starting with Hive version 0.13, Hive can also run queries directly on Tez, a more efficient data processing engine built on top of Hadoop YARN.

Hive is highly extensible, and its functionality can be extended through the use of user-defined functions (UDFs), user-defined aggregates (UDAs), and user-defined table functions (UDTFs). Hive also integrates with various tools, such as Apache Pig and Apache Spark, to provide a more flexible and powerful data processing platform.

Hive’s ability to store and process large amounts of structured and semi-structured data makes it a popular tool for big data processing and analytics. Its compatibility with Hadoop and other big data tools allows users to leverage their existing infrastructure and tools to analyze large datasets. Hive’s user-friendly SQL-like interface also makes it accessible to users with SQL experience, enabling faster and more efficient data analysis.


Pig is a high-level scripting language used in Hadoop for processing and analyzing large datasets. Pig is an open-source platform that simplifies the process of processing and analyzing large data sets. Pig’s primary goal is to make Hadoop accessible to data analysts who are not necessarily proficient in Java. It provides a simple and easy-to-use language called Pig Latin for processing data.

Pig Latin is a high-level language that is used to write data processing jobs for Hadoop. It is a scripting language that provides an abstraction over MapReduce, which is the underlying processing framework in Hadoop. With Pig, users can write scripts that are translated into MapReduce jobs, which are then executed in a distributed Hadoop environment.

Pig has several advantages over traditional MapReduce programming. First, Pig Latin is easier to write and understand than Java. Second, it provides a high-level abstraction over MapReduce, which makes it easier to write complex data processing jobs. Finally, Pig is highly extensible, allowing users to write custom functions in Java or other programming languages.

Pig consists of two major components: the Pig Latin language and the Pig execution environment. The Pig Latin language is used to write scripts that define data processing jobs. These scripts are then translated into MapReduce jobs by the Pig execution environment.

The Pig execution environment includes a parser, optimizer, and execution engine. The parser is used to parse the Pig Latin scripts, while the optimizer is used to optimize the execution plan of the scripts. The execution engine is responsible for executing the optimized plan on the Hadoop cluster.

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Pig has several built-in operators that can be used for data processing, including filters, aggregators, and join operators. Pig also provides UDFs (User-Defined Functions) that can be used to write custom processing functions. These UDFs can be written in Java, Python, or other programming languages.

In summary, Pig is a high-level data processing language used in Hadoop for analyzing and processing large datasets. It simplifies the process of writing data processing jobs for Hadoop by providing a simple, easy-to-use language called Pig Latin. Pig is highly extensible, providing users the ability to write custom processing functions in Java or other programming languages.


Apache Spark is an open-source distributed computing system that is designed to process large datasets in a fast and efficient manner. It was developed in response to the limitations of Hadoop MapReduce, which was not designed for iterative and interactive computing. Spark allows for processing in-memory and on-disk, making it much faster than other big data processing technologies.

The core abstraction in Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), which is a fault-tolerant collection of elements that can be operated on in parallel. RDDs can be created from various data sources, such as Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), Cassandra, and HBase, among others.

Spark also offers a variety of high-level APIs, such as Spark SQL, which allows for structured data processing using SQL syntax, and MLlib, which provides machine learning algorithms for processing data. Additionally, Spark can be integrated with other big data tools, such as Hadoop and Hive, allowing for more complex data processing pipelines.

Spark is also known for its ease of use and simple programming model. It offers APIs in Java, Python, and Scala, making it accessible to a wide range of developers. It also provides a web-based user interface for monitoring and managing Spark applications.

Overall, Spark has become one of the most popular big data processing frameworks due to its speed, ease of use, and ability to integrate with other tools. It has been adopted by many large companies and organizations for their big data processing needs.

The Hadoop architecture is highly scalable and fault-tolerant. It allows for the addition of new nodes to the cluster as needed, which helps to increase the storage and processing capacity of the system. Additionally, Hadoop is fault-tolerant, meaning that if a node in the cluster fails, the data stored on that node can be recovered from other nodes in the cluster.


In conclusion, the Hadoop architecture is a powerful and versatile framework for big data processing. Its distributed file system and data processing framework, combined with other ecosystem components, make it an ideal solution for handling massive amounts of data across a cluster of computers. With its ability to scale, process data in a fault-tolerant manner, and provide a variety of data processing options, Hadoop is an essential tool for any organization that deals with big data.


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